Tuesday, 19 November 2019

The Caterpillar Crawl of History


I have just come out of Budapest, where for six days I have watched Hungary’s new-born freedom tragically destroyed by Soviet troops.
....
Vast areas of the city – the working-class areas above all – are virtually in ruins. For four days and nights Budapest was under continuous bombardment. I saw a once lovely city battered, bludgeoned, smashed and bled into submission. To an one who loves equally the Socialist Soviet Union and the Hungarian people it was heart-breaking.
Peter Fryer Hungarian Tragedy

There's quite a surprising disconnect between online socialists and offline socialists, I'm sure I'm not the only one to notice that people advocating for certain politics behave completely differently on the web than those advocates on the streets, and sometimes different websites will have their own subcultures despite on the surface being identical.

For me one of the most jarring has been social media Marxist-Leninists and their allergic reaction to the term Tankie. That doesn't correlate at all with my experiences with the UK Stalinist remnant.

What's even more annoying is the bizarre allegation many cyberstalinists make that the term is some kind of slur of fascist propaganda. The term of course unusually for slang has a pretty well documented history, and that history is tied up with that of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB).

The term was coined shortly after the bloody events of Hungary 1956 when the Soviet army entered the country and began violently crushing any traces of dissent, and in the process destroyed a working class revolution built around workers councils and the dismantling of the repressive state functions.

The invasion received the full and enthusiastic support of all Moscow aligned Communist parties in the west including the CPGB, however cheerleading a brutal invasion in the heart of Europe and the culling of many former comrades from the Hungarian party was too much to stomach for many members.

So many members tore up their cards and left, its here that the term Tankie made its appearance. We don't know who came up with it first, but given its slang nature was probably coined by an ex or reluctantly remaining member. But what's strange about this term is that it very, very quickly was adopted as a sort of point of pride.

One of the earliest appearances of the word in print is from journalist Peter Patterson recalling A 1956 interview he had with Trade Union leader Reg Birch shortly after he joined the CPGB's Executive Committee.

 When I asked him how he could possibly have sided with the 'tankies', so called because of the use of Russian tanks to quell the revolt, he said 'they wanted a trade unionist who could stomach Hungary, and I fitted the bill'."
From Peter Paterson How Much More of This, Old Boy-- ?: Scenes from a Reporter's Life

This is an important dialogue, here we have the term linked to the events of Hungary and Reg instead of disputing that or being insulted confirms that connection and that it applies to him and the other leaders of the party.

Reg Birch would eventually leave the CPGB n the 60s to found the Communist Party of Britain Marxist-Leninist CPB-ML which moved to supporting Mao until the late 70s when the party sided with Enver Hoxha in his break with the People's Republic. I'd barely encountered a handful of references to the CPB-ML over the years and they were all in the past tense, so I assumed they had folded at some point, but they're still around and so far have been part of a small coalition of parties pushing for "Lexit".

Anyway, after this the term was used by critics of the party and its politics as a term of abuse, but within the party it found traction as insult and badge of pride. As the CPGB continued it started to fracture with multiple factions and competing tendencies, the two main tendencies broadly speaking were the Eurocommunists and the hardliners, but that's simplifying a lot, both positions in the 70s and 80s would splinter and there were factions and members who didn't really fit into either.

For example the group around the news sheet The Leninist, would go on to be influenced by Trotskyism as well as others, and the group Straight Left was often described as a hardliner or tankie faction by other members but its ideas revolved around working more closely with and using the Labour party.

Essentially its a big mess, who is a hardliner or a soft moderate depends on which former members accounts you read and who they apply it to. Honestly I think at this point in time the term Tankie started to lose much of its original meaning within the CPGB despite its increase in popularity.

Eventually the splintering would eat the party up and when the Soviet Union collapsed the hardliners were adrift and the old CPGB dissolved in 1991 with its members diffusing to at least a dozen other parties.

Over the years at union marches, demonstrations and conferences I've encountered over a dozen old ex CPGBers most of whom were either in the Communist Party of Britain or the Labour Party, but some had attached themselves to pressure groups instead like the campaign for Clause Four or peace groups.

Interestingly they all described themselves nostalgically as old Tankies, I don't think I've ever met a member of the Eurocommunists which is a bit strange. I remember one fellow selling Morning Stars at a stall who told me about how he and his branch used to have secret meetings with Left wing Labour members like Harriet Harman about how to topple the British state.

So this is why I find it so jarring to see so many North American supposed inheritors of the legacy of the old CPGB react this way.

I especially find it very odd, because most of the people complaining about the term are open and even proud of their belief that the events of Hungary and other similar examples of the "workers state" clubbing dissident workers is not only necessary but perfectly compatible with workers liberation.

Hell, many of these people are openly contemptuous of anyone who disagrees with the proletarian party's right to break up strikes and detain thousands.

To be blunt I think calling the older members of Britain's Communist party soup Tankies is a bit insulting since most of them seem to have mellowed out since 1991. I have a hard time thinking the old man in a beret and apron covered in decades old badges would be okay with military police with red stars on their helmets cracking heads on picket lines outside the People's Ironworks No.7.

But the twitter user with a dozen flags in their bio who has just written a thread on how the camps in Xinjiang are great and the dissident Chinese communists are CIA plants etc? Yeah I can absolutely see them happy about that. Many of the online Marxist-Leninists and Maoists seem to have built their identity and political outlook entirely around justifying the repression of regimes who use the right phrases.

Indeed over the past two years I've seen talk of Hungary go from sheepish silence to increased combativeness about how the Hungarians were fascists and deserved to be defeated all along. So if they're okay with Hungary why so hostile to a slang term that accurately describes their own views?

Saturday, 16 November 2019

Wall of Shame - Footnotes

These are the footnotes for the post Wall of Shame, the reason I've separated them is because the work has grown so large that its broken blogger.




_________________________________________________________________________________

1: How Much More of This, Old Boy-- ?: Scenes from a Reporter's Life, Peter Paterson p.181

2: http://spartacus-educational.com/RUSassembly.htm

3: https://libcom.org/library/factory-committees-russian-revolution-rod-jones

4: http://faroutliers.blogspot.com/2005/04/chinas-role-in-suppressing-hungarian.html

5: Meisner Mao's China and After- page 353

6: https://www.blaisecompaore.com/en/political-and-military-career/1983-1987-the-revolution/

7: https://www.marxists.org/archive/allende/1970/september/20.htm

8: https://www.marxists.org/archive/camejo/1971/19711201.htm

9: https://reddebreksbowl.blogspot.com/2013/09/strange-defeat-chilean-revolution-1973.html

10: https://www.marxists.org/archive/camejo/1971/19711201.htm

11: The Elections to the National Assembly (December 1918) https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1918/12/23.htm

12: The Zapatista Uprising and Civil Society https://www.scribd.com/document/142706174/The-Zapatista-Uprising-and-Civil-Society

13: https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/16/business/imf-loans-set-for-rumania.html

14: https://www.dawn.com/news/1223761

15: https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/ca.firstwave/cpl-abortion/section6.htm

16: http://www.rediff.com/news/special/the-untold-story-how-the-us-came-to-indias-aid-in-1962/20121204.htm

17: John Peter Nettl, Rosa Luxemburg (1966) page 767

18: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_T._King#Support_for_the_IRA

19: https://www.irishtimes.com/news/sf-accepted-5-000-from-coca-cola-1.370553

20: https://www.independent.ie/irish-news/shinners-turn-fire-on-coke-26217021.html

21: https://www.cc-ds.org/publications/goals-principles/

22: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/race/interviews/davis.html

23: http://digital.wustl.edu/e/eii/eiiweb/dav5427.0115.036marc_record_interviewer_process.html

24: https://libcom.org/library/huey-newton-introduces-revolutionary-intercommunalism-boston-college-november-18-1970

25: http://www.unz.com/print/NewPolitics-1972q1-00072

26: http://www.itv.com/news/2016-05-25/kingsmill-massacre-sole-surviver-tells-inquest-teenage-victim-cried-for-his-mother/

27: Marxism and the Problems of Linguistics Pravda, 1950

28:  Speech to 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U.

28: https://libcom.org/history/greece-war-civil-war

29: Speech to 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U.

30: Note found in Stalin's personal effects.

31: http://articles.latimes.com/1993-06-12/news/mn-2405_1_yugoslav-leader

32: Birth of a Revolutionary Movement in Yugoslavia - Fredy Perlman

33: Idib

34: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_and_state_funeral_of_Josip_Broz_Tito#State_delegations

35:  Yugoslavery Yugoslavia: Capitalism and Class struggle 1918-1967, BM Blob

36: Gay in the Gulag

37: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Japanese-ate-Indian-PoWs-used-them-as-live-targets-in-WWII/articleshow/40017577.cms

38: Nehru and the Indian Armed Forces, a lecture by General J N Chaudhuri, 5th May 1973

39: Communist Election platform 1936-https://archive.org/details/CommunistElectionPlatform1936


40:  "Interview with Gil Green." New Studies in the Politics and Culture of U.S. Communism. New York: Monthly Review, 1993.

41: https://www.marxists.org/archive/bhagat-singh/1930/01/21.htm

42: Letter to Jaidev Gupta July 24, 1930 - https://www.marxists.org/archive/bhagat-singh/1930/07/24.htm


43: Why I am an Atheist October 1930  https://www.marxists.org/archive/bhagat-singh/1930/10/05.htm

44:  Beware, Ye Bureaucracy December 1928 - https://www.marxists.org/archive/bhagat-singh/1928/12/18.htm

45: To Young Political Workers February 1931 - https://www.marxists.org/archive/bhagat-singh/1931/02/02.htm

46: IRSP press release on formal adoption of Marxism, 20 September 1984 https://irishrepublicanmarxisthistoryproject.wordpress.com/2016/12/14/irsp-speeches-and-writings-by-jim-lane-1983-1987/

47: https://www.rte.ie/centuryireland/index.php/articles/james-connolly-what-should-irish-people-do-during-the-war

48: Connollism; Solidarity for Workers Power - Volume 07 number 11

49: The Blast 1916 issue, The Only Hope of Ireland https://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/alexander-berkman-the-only-hope-of-ireland

50: The Civil War in France - Karl Marx

51: An Interview With Karl Marx - Red Menace #4 - Volume 3, Number 1 - Winter 1979

52: 1891 Introduction to the Civil War in France

53:  Remarks  quoted  in Basile Guissou, Burkina Faso, un espoir en Afrique, l’Harmattan, (Paris 1995), p. 75-76


54: The Polish Crisis of 1981-82 https://www.margaretthatcher.org/archive/us-reagan%20(Poland).asp

55: http://www.jcp.or.jp/english/2011what_jcp.html

56: The Japanese Communist Party: Organization and Resilience in the Midst of Adversity Lam Peng Er Pacific Affairs Vol. 69, No. 3 (Autumn, 1996) https://www.jstor.org/stable/2760924?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents


57: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/why-berlin-cannot-forget-the-stasi-2002600.html

58: https://www.berliner-mauer-gedenkstaette.de/en/todesopfer-240.html

59: http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/we-are-the-people-a-peaceful-revolution-in-leipzig-a-654137.html

60: http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/we-are-the-people-a-peaceful-revolution-in-leipzig-a-654137.html

61: 20 Songs and Transatlantic Exchgange. 2007

62: https://libcom.org/tags/south-wales-miners-federation

63: https://indianexpress.com/article/research/birth-of-bangladesh-when-raped-women-and-war-babies-paid-the-price-of-a-new-nation-victory-day-4430420/

64: March 26, 1971.. and after https://opinion.bdnews24.com/2015/03/26/march-26-1971-and-after/

65: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langston_Hughes#Political_views

66: From the New Jewel Movement Manifesto first published in 1973

67: The ABC of NJM circa 1974 https://www.thegrenadarevolutiononline.com/abcnjm.html

68: The Truth of the Revolution, published in 1980 https://www.thegrenadarevolutiononline.com/revotruth.html

69: https://www.thegrenadarevolutiononline.com/austinradio.html

70: Trade Agreement Between His Brittanic Majesty's Government and the Government of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic 1921 https://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Anglo-Soviet_Trade_Agreement

71: Revolution in Iran: Was it possible in 1921? - Fred Halliday Khamsin:Journal of Revolutionary Socialists of the Middle East, Issue number 07

72: Ethiopian Dictator Sentenced to Prison, Associated Press 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/11/AR2007011100243.html?noredirect=on

73: Class and Revolution in Ethiopia by John Markakis and Naga Ayale published in 1978. 


74: Calls for Mengistu Extradition https://iwpr.net/global-voices/calls-mengistu-extradition


75: A Look Back at the Battle of Massawa, TESFA News https://www.tesfanews.net/look-back-battle-massawa/


76: Ethiopian Jews and Israelis Exult as Airlift Is Completed, New York Tribune, 1991 https://www.nytimes.com/1991/05/26/world/ethiopian-jews-and-israelis-exult-as-airlift-is-completed.html

77: Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia, pg 170


78: Idib, pg 185

79: Biography of M.N. Roy at Marxist Internet Archive https://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/r/o.htm#roy-mn

80: Mass Grave Uncovered in Mongolia June 2003 RTE https://www.rte.ie/news/2003/0612/39247-mongolia/

81: Prelude to violence: Show trials and state power in 1930s Mongolia, Christopher Kaplonski

82: `Interview of the Century` Interview with Chairman Gonzalo, El Diario archived vers https://web.archive.org/web/20071108165711/http://www.blythe.org/peru-pcp/docs_en/interv.htm

83: Shining Path Leader Confesses to Killings, Denies Drug Crime, March 2012 https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/shining-path-leader-confesses-to-killings-denies-drug-crime/

84:  Peru: LGBT Community Targeted During Armed Conflict, Telesur November 2014 https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Peru-LGBT-Community-Targeted-During-Armed-Conflict-20141121-0038.html

85: Until the Rulers Obey: Voices from Latin American Social Movements

86: Untold Terror: Violence Against Women in Peru's Armed Conflict Chapter VI, page 43

87:  From Kafr al-Dawwar to Kharga’s ‘Desert Hell Camp’: the repression of Communist workers in Egypt, 1952-1965, Derek Alan Ide https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=wotw

88: The Communist Movement in Egypt in 1920-88 pg 116-7

89: Idib pg 126

90: DEFINING THE ENEMY AS ISRAEL, ZIONIST, NEO-NAZI, OR JEWISH: THE PROPAGANDA WAR IN NASSER’S EGYPT, 1952–1967 Michael Sharnoff

91: Figures taken from https://www.nti.org/media/documents/egypt_chemical_weapon_attacks_yemen.pdf

92: Prominent Enemy of Syria's Assad Is Slain in Paris, July 1980 Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1980/07/22/prominent-enemy-of-syrias-assad-is-slain-in-paris/03d0ff98-33a5-4c84-9fe8-a3b0b3df0851/?utm_term=.dc7bc33da0b5


93: AWOL Magazine, Yuri Kochiyama: On War, Imperialism, Osama bin Laden, And Black-Asian Politics https://web.archive.org/web/20031011061448/http://awol.objector.org/yuri.html

94: Idib

95: Saudis secretly funding Taliban, The Independent 1998, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/saudis-secretly-funding-taliban-1195453.html

96: Robert Parry, Hollywood’s Dangerous Afghan Illusion https://consortiumnews.com/2013/04/07/hollywoods-dangerous-afghan-illusion/

97: China congratulates Jair Bolsonaro on election as Brazilian president, Xinhua 30th October 2018


98: Exit Emperor Kim Jong Il: Notes from his Former Mentor

99: Comrades no more? How North Korea picked sides in the Sino-Soviet split June 2018 NK News https://www.nknews.org/2018/06/comrades-no-more-how-north-korea-picked-sides-in-the-sino-soviet-split/

100: Massimo L. Salvadori, Gramsci e il problema Storico della Democrazia, English translation from Paul Piccone's Italian Marxism, also published as a separate article Gramsci's Marxism versus Lenin's


101: Selections from the Prison Notebooks: Antonio Gramsci, this version was published in 1999 by Elec Books.

102: Both quotations come from Italian Marxism by Paul Piccone.

103: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04fz6ky

104: Gramsci and Political Theory: Marxism Today 1977

105: Gramsci's Marxism versus Lenin's by Paul Piccone

106: Long Walk to Freedom Book by Nelson Mandela, 1995.

107: External Mission the ANC in Exile 1960-1990, Stephen Ellis

108: Extract from Nelson Mandela's Address to a Rally in Cape Town on his Release from prison 
11 February 1990
109: Department of Justice and Constitutional Development of the Republic of South Africa, The Truth and Reconciliation Official Website, Justice.gov.za Accessed 2 October 2001
110:  Mandela family rakes in millions - report News 24 archives https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/Mandela-family-rakes-in-millions-report-20130429
111: Marikana 1 Year Later: Benjamin Fogel archived at https://web.archive.org/web/20140201151805/http://www.amandla.org.za/amandla-magazine/current-issue/1793-marikana-1-year-later--by-benjamin-fogel
112:  Cyril Ramaphosa: The true betrayal, by Ranjeni Munusamy 27 October 2012 https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2012-10-27-cyril-ramaphosa-the-true-betrayal/

113:  A short history of the People's Republic of Benin (1974 - 1990), Socialist Appeal

114: Goodbye to all that: The Short and Sad story of Socialism in Benin, Chris Allen


115: Idib


116:  Beninese campaign for economic justice and democracy, 1989-90, Max Rennebohm

117: Idib


118: Obama and Xi Try to Avoid a Cold War Mentality June 2013 New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/10/world/asia/obama-and-xi-try-to-avoid-a-cold-war-mentality.html?pagewanted=all

119: African Socialism Revisited, Kwame Nkrumah 1967

120: Thomas Sankara's speech to the 39th Session of the UN General Assembly in October 1984 http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/39/PV.20

121: http://www.redsun.org/Conf_2018/joint_decl_2018.htm

122: Saddam his Rise and Fall, Con Coughlin

123: Idib.

124: The Encyclopaedia of Middle East Wars: The United States in the Persian Gulf  pg 30

125: Talks at the Chengtu Conferrence March 1958, Mao Zedong https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-8/mswv8_06.htm#n17


126: Mao's China and After -A History of the People's Republic 3rd edition, Maurice Meisner


127: Transcript of a speech Margaret Thatcher gave to the Romanian Prime Minister at a dinner in 1981 https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/104618


128:  Nicolae Ceaușescu's comments while visiting Sweden in November 1980 https://www.upi.com/Archives/1980/11/08/Ceausescu-calls-for-Soviet-withdrawal-from-Afghanistan/3316342507600/


129: Enver Hoxha Reflections on China, page 576-577 http://www.enverhoxha.ru/Archive_of_books/English/enver_hoxha_reflections_on_china_volume_I_eng.pdf


130: The Bookseller f Kabul: Asne Seierstad


131: Lin Biao, Report to the Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/lin-biao/1969/04/01.htm


132: Quotations are from Huey P. Newtons autobiography, Revolutionary Suicide


133:  Julian Amery MP letter to MT (Prime Minister's visit to Poland) [relations between western Europe and East Europe] [declassified Jul 2016] https://116ae215f57b47bc40bd-32276aa0a4a9ef306defd1327a583a38.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/881031%20amery%20let%20PREM19-2385%20f10.pdf


134: From an Open Letter published in 1985 https://www.ict.org.il/UserFiles/The%20Hizballah%20Program%20-%20An%20Open%20Letter.pdf 


135: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/10998755/North-Korea-denies-reports-of-missile-deal-with-Hamas.html report includes denunciations by North Korea of claims it has ben supporting both Hamas and Hezbollah.


136: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-usa-drugs/venezuela-denies-u-s-drug-report-hezbollah-charges-idUSTRE56K6M120090721


137: Ojibwa Warrior, Autobiography of Dennis Banks 


138: Idib


139: https://www.domomusicgroup.com/dennisbanks/


140: https://socialistaction.ca/2014/06/08/celia-sanchez-heroine-of-the-cuban-revolution/


141: Celia Sanchez and the Cuban Revolution, Counter Punch https://www.counterpunch.org/2013/01/25/celia-sanchez-and-the-cuban-revolution/


142: Angela Davis: an Autobiography


143: Carmichael, in ‘Objective’ View, Sees Hitler as ‘Greatest White’ Fred Ferretti April 1970


144: Che's Anarchist Grandson 1974-2015 https://libcom.org/history/che’s-grandson-anarchist


145: The 27 May in Angola: a view from below Lara Pawson


147:  The road from Naxalbari; VENKITESH RAMAKRISHNAN

148: Idib

149: Why did Chavismo fail? A balance sheet from the left opposition 2018


150: A Basic Understanding of the Communist Party of China, pp. 46-47


151: Speech extract taken from https://venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/1834


152: Our Reply to the Conciliators of Revisionism, a document denouncing Eugene Dennis and his leadership of the party https://www.marxists.org/history//erol/1956-1960/ourreply.htm


153:  Castro turned his back on anti-Francoists”: interview with Octavio Alberola - Aitor Azurki
https://libcom.org/library/“castro-turned-his-back-anti-francoists”-interview-octavio-alberola-aitor-azurki

154: The Cuban Revolution, a critical perspective - Sam Dolgofff


155: Comoros a Country Study - http://www.country-data.com/frd/cs/kmtoc.html#km0015


156: Idib.


157:  Ali Soilihi: President comes 30 years too early ALI SOILIHI'S CLOSE-UP (machine translated from French)
https://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.thomassankara.net/ali-soilihi-mtsashiwa-1937-1978-le-sankara-des-comores/&prev=search

158: Comoros a Country Study - http://www.country-data.com/frd/cs/kmtoc.html#km0015

159: How to Stage a Military Coup: From Planning to Execution - page 136


160: Seychelles a Country Study 1994- http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-3440.html 


161:  Seychelles: legal concern: Frank Kilindo, dockworker 1991


162:  Seychelles: Torture: Jean Francois 


163:  U.S. still willing to aid Seychelles, October 1985, Washington Times 



164: Seychelles: Security Concerns - http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-3433.html


165:  Seychelles' first Defence Minister, Ogilvy Berlouis, passes



166:  President Xi Jinping’s keynote speech at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland: 


167: Wildcat Strikes at Walmart China, 2016 http://libcom.org/blog/wildcat-strikes-walmart-china-09072016


168: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2018/09/china-up-to-one-million-detained/


169: Gender war and social stability in Xi’s China: Interview with a friend of the Women’s Day Five (1st half) http://libcom.org/blog/gender-war-social-stability-xi’s-china-interview-friend-women’s-day-five-1st-half-19032015

170:  In China, The Communist Party's Latest, Unlikely Target: Young Marxists https://www.npr.org/2018/11/21/669509554/in-china-the-communist-partys-latest-unlikely-target-young-marxists
171: Africa's Tarnished Name - Chinua Achebe, 1998

172: The Question of Nationalities or "Autonomisation"  - Lenin 1922 
https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1922/dec/testamnt/autonomy.htm

173:  China: A Modern Social-Imperialist Power An Integral Part of the Capitalist-Imperialist System An Analysis by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) http://www.revaim.org/uploads/booklets/China%20-%20A%20Modern%20Social-Imperialist%20Power.pdf

175: Military-NPA Ceasefire starts June 21st, 14th June 2018 https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1000705/military-npa-ceasefire-starts-june-21
176:  ILPS extends solidarity to massive protest actions in Hong Kong https://ilps.info/en/2019/08/05/ilps-extends-solidarity-to-massive-protest-actions-in-hong-kong/
177: Rosa Luxemburg, The Russian Tragedy, September 1918 
https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1918/09/11.htm
178: From Lenin at the Eleventh party Congress of the Bolsheviks
179: Officials must become true servants of the people; Talk to officials of party, administrative and economic organs December 28 1992. Kim Il Sung
180: UFOs, Dolphins, Nuclear war and Communism, the stranger than Science Fiction political party.
https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/ufos-dolphins-nuclear-war-and-communism-the-stranger-than-sci-fi-political-party

181: A Critical assessment of the former Latin American Bureau tendency within the Fourth International https://www.marxists.org/archive/posadas/critical.htm

182: Arafat by Alan Hart page 184

183: Syria and the 1975-76 civil war in Lebanon, Karol R. Sorby, Asian and African Studies Volume 20 https://www.sav.sk/journals/uploads/091911392_Sorby.pdf

184: The Syrian Intervention in Lebanon 1975-76: A failure of strategy by Lt Col Theodore J. Strout
https://www.aiswest.com/uploaded/2018_Summer_Work/History/Syrian_Intervention_in_Lebanon_1975-76_A_failure_of_strategy.pdf

185:Its a Class Struggle Goddamit! Speech at Illinois University November 1969 http://www.lfks.net/en/content/fred-hampton-its-class-struggle-goddammit-november-1969

186: Idib

187: We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party by Mumia Abu-Jabal

188: Revolutionary Suicide by Huey P. Newton

189: JCP calls for immediate cessation of suppression in Hong Kong http://www.jcp.or.jp/english/jcpcc/blog/2019/11/20191114-immediate-cessation-of-suppression-in-hong-kong.html
190: Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian Revolution: Populism and Democracy in a globalised age, Barry Cannon
191; “What is the problem? I am also a Trotskyist!” - Chavez is sworn in as president of Venezuela by In Defence of Marxism http://www.marxist.com/chavez-trotskyist-president120107.htm
192: Land Reform in Venezuela: Small Farmers receive land, equipment, credit https://www.narconews.com/Issue31/article862.html
193: Vetelca - the story of the first ever Bolivarian factory by El Libertario https://libcom.org/library/venezuela-vetelca-story-first-ever-bolivarian-factory
194: Venezuela: 43 arrests on union march in Maracay 12/03/2010 https://libcom.org/news/venezuela-43-arrests-union-march-maracay-12032010
195: The Takedown of  Kabul: An effective Coup de Mains by Lester W.Grau https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/2002/MOUTGrau.htm
196: Chinese Ambassador Comments on Afghanistan 28 May 1978 https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1978KABUL04337_d.html
197: An April Day That Changed Afghanistan 3: The legacy of the Saur Revolution’s war crimes , Patricia Grossman 
https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/an-april-day-that-changed-afghanistan-3-the-legacy-of-the-saur-revolutions-war-crimes/
198: Idib
199: Sadeq Alamyar report by Trial International https://trialinternational.org/latest-post/sadeq-alamyar/
200: Afghanistan the first five years of  Soviet Occupation, J Bruce Armstutz
201: Idib
202:  Revolution Unending by Gilles Dorronsoro
203: Articles of the Constitution of Afghanistan 1990 https://www.afghan-web.com/history/afghanistan-constitution-of-1990/ 204: The predictable rise of a red bourgeoisie: the end of a mythical Nepalese Maoist 'revolution' http://libcom.org/news/predictable-rise-red-bourgeoisie-end-mythical-nepalese-maoist-revolution-24022012 205: Chinese Deliver Arms to Nepal; 25th November 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4469508.stm 206: Nepal’s Basanta: Re-evaluating Prachanda and his path, https://web.archive.org/web/20160112053946/http://kasamaarchive.org/2012/08/31/nepals-basanta-re-evaluation-prachanda-and-his-path/
207:
Nepalese Maoists restate intention to ban strikes and other news http://libcom.org/news/nepal-maoists-restate-intention-ban-strikes-other-news-10042009
208: 
The predictable rise of a red bourgeoisie: the end of a mythical Nepalese Maoist 'revolution' http://libcom.org/news/predictable-rise-red-bourgeoisie-end-mythical-nepalese-maoist-revolution-24022012
209: Libya: June 1996 Killings at Abu Salim Prison https://www.hrw.org/news/2006/06/27/libya-june-1996-killings-abu-salim-prison
210: 
Revolution betrayed - the Workers Revolutionary Party and Iraq https://libcom.org/library/revolution-betrayed-wrp-iraq
211: Gaddafi's Blood soaked hands https://swampland.time.com/2011/02/22/gaddafis-blood-soaked-hands/
212: Enniskillen survivors plea to McGuinness over attack https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-20245310
213: The 38-year connection between Irish republicans and Gaddafi https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-12539372
214: 
Gaddafi visit to Italy amid protest against countries' 'illegal migration' agreement https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2009/06/gaddafi-visit-italy-amid-protest-against-countries039-039illegal-migration039-ag/
215: Colonel Gaddafi and the British ultranationalist https://www.ibtimes.com/colonelgaddafi-british-ultra-nationalist-279909

216: Strike in Ghana 1961 https://libcom.org/library/strikes-ghana-1961
217: Nkrumah and the Ghanaian Revolution, CLR James
218: North Korea and Zimbabwe a Friendship Explained https://www.mixedtimes.com/business/north-korea-and-zimbabwe-a-friendship-explained
219:  Matabeleland: Its Struggle for National Legitimacy, and the Relevance of this in the 2008 Election https://www.boell.de/en/navigation/afrika-2482.html
220: Exit Emperor Kim Jong Il location 1498
221: Remembering the Coup d’etat in 1996 https://www.dailynk.com/english/remembering-the-coup-detat-in-1996/
222: Mapping a Hidden Disaster; Personal Histories of Hunger in North Korea https://web.archive.org/web/20161128195312/https://hazdoc.colorado.edu/bitstream/handle/10590/5438/C024508.pdf?sequence=1
223: Exit Emperor Kim Jong Il location 1479
224: N Korea confesses to kidnappings Tuesday, 17 September, 2002 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2262074.stm
225: What remains when socialism is removed from North Korea? https://www.dailynk.com/english/what-remains-when-socialism-is-rem/
226: Today in Korean history Yonhap News Agency https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20191212001500315?section=search
227: Regime takes up to two-thirds of salaries from workers for ‘loyalty funds’ https://www.dailynk.com/english/regime-takes-up-to-two-thirds-of-salaries-from-workers-for-loyalty-funds/
228: Business in DPR Korea https://www.korea-dpr.com/business.html
229: A Capitalist in North Korea: my seven years in the hermit kingdom, by Felix Abt
230: Idib
231: Remembering Assad’s Hama Massacre 33 Years Later (2/2/15) Remembering Assad’s Hama Massacre 33 Years Later (2/2/15)
232: 
National Alliance, Holocaust Deniers React to 9/11 Attacks https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/intelligence-report/2002/national-alliance-holocaust-deniers-react-911-attacks

232: Third World Nationalism and the State, by Sam Dolgoff, first edition published in 1977.
233: Tanganyika Embarrassed By Need for British Assistance; Calls For Pan-African Force To Aid In Future Crises By John D. Gerhart, March 10, 1964 https://libcom.org/library/1964-british-troops-help-julius-nyerere-suppress-mutiny
234: History of Tanzania – President Nyerere https://www.tanzaniaodyssey.com/blog/cadogan-guide-to-tanzania-history-of-tanzania-president-nyerere/
235: Nyerere’s legacy of poverty and repression in Zanzibar https://www.juliusnyerere.org/index.php/resources/view/nyereres_legacy_of_poverty_and_repression_in_zanzibar
236: What we can learn from Tanzania’s hidden socialist history by Selma James https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/dec/11/tanzania-hidden-socialist-history-president-julius-nyerere









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